PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS IN GUERRILLA WARFARE

A tactical manual for the revolutionary that was published by the Central Intelligence Agency and distributed to the Contras in Central America. Combat Arms urges gun owners in the UnitedStates to become very familiar with the contents of this manual and to discuss itamong your family and friends. Liberty knowsno peace.PREFACE Guerrilla warfare is essentially a political war. Therefore, its area of operations exceeds the territorial limits of conventional warfare, to penetrate the political entity itself: the “political animal” that Aristotle defined. In effect,the human being should be considered the priority objectivein a political war. And conceived as the military target of guerrilla war, the human being has his most critical point in his mind. Once his mind has been reached, the”political animal” has been defeated, without necessarily receiving bullets.Guerrilla warfare is born and grows in the political environment; in the constant combat to dominate that area of political mentality that isinherent to all human beings and which collectively constitutes the”environment” in which guerrilla warfare moves, and which is whereprecisely its victory or failure is defined.This conception of guerrilla warfare as political war turnsPsychological Operations into the decisive factor of the results. Thetarget, then, is the minds of the population, all the population: ourtroops, the enemy troops and the civilian population.This book is a manual for the training of guerrillas in psychologicaloperations, and its application to the concrete case of the Christian anddemocratic crusade being waged in Nicaragua by the Freedom Commandos.Welcome!INTRODUCTION1. GeneralitiesThe purpose of this book is to introduce the guerrilla student to thepsychological operations techniques that will be of immediate and practicalvalue to him in guerrilla warfare. This section is introductory andgeneral; subsequent sections will cover each point set forth here in moredetail.The nature of the environment of guerrilla warfare does not permitsophisticated psychological operations, and it becomes necessary for thechiefs of groups, chiefs of detachments and squadron leaders to have theability to carry out, with minimal instructions from the higher levels,psychological action operations with the contacts that are thoroughly awareof the situation, i.e. the foundations.2. Combatant-Propagandist GuerrillasIn order to obtain the maximum results from the psychologicaloperations in guerrilla warfare, every combatant should be as highlymotivated to carry out propaganda face to face as he is a combatant. Thismeans that the individual political awareness of the guerrilla of thereason for his struggle will be as acute as his ability to fight.Such a political awareness and motivation is obtained through thedynamic of groups and self-criticism, as a standard method of instructionfor the guerrilla training and operations. Group discussions raise thespirit and improve the unity of thought of the guerrilla training andoperations. Group discussions raise the spirit and improve the unity ofthought of the guerrilla squads and exercise social pressure on the weakmembers to carry out a better role in future training or in combativeaction. Self-criticism is in terms of one’s contribution or defects in hiscontribution to the cause, to the movement, the struggle, etc.; and gives apositive individual commitment to the mission of the group.The desired result is a guerrilla who can persuasively justify hisactions when he comes into contact with any member of the People ofNicaragua, and especially with himself and his fellow guerrillas in dealingwith the vicissitudes of guerrilla warfare. This means that every guerrillawill be persuasive in his face-to-face communication – propagandist-combatant – ins his contact with the people; he should be able to give 5 or10 logical reasons why, for example, a peasant should give him cloth,needle and thread to mend his clothes. When the guerrilla behaves in thismanner, enemy propaganda will never succeed in making him an enemy in theeyes of the people. It also means that hunger, cold, fatigue and insecuritywill have a meaning, psychologically, in the cause of the struggle due tohis constant orientation.3. Armed PropagandaArmed propaganda includes every act carried out, and the goodimpression that this armed force causes will result in positive attitudesin the population toward that force; ad it does not include forcedindoctrination. Armed propaganda improves the behavior of the populationtoward them, and it is not achieved by force.This means that a guerilla armed unit in a rural town will not givethe impression that arms are their strength over the peasants, but ratherthat they are the strength of the peasants against the Sandinistagovernment of repression. This is achieved through a close identificationwith the people, as follows: hanging up weapons and working together withthem on their crops, in construction, in the harvesting of grains, infishing, etc.; explanations to young men about basic weapons, e.g. givingthem an unloaded weapon and letting them touch it, see it, etc.; describingin a rudimentary manner its operation; describing with simple slogans howweapons will serve the people to win their freedom; demanding the requestsby the people for hospitals and education, reducing taxes, etc.All these acts have as their goal the creation of an identification ofthe people with the weapons and the guerrillas who carry them, so that thepopulation feels that the weapons are, indirectly, their weapon to protectthem and help them in the struggle against a regime of oppression. Implicitterror always accompanies weapons, since the people are internally “aware”that they can be used against them, but as long as explicit coercion isavoided, positive attitudes can be achieved with respect to the presence ofarmed guerrillas within the population.4. Armed Propaganda TeamsArmed Propaganda Teams (EPA) are formed through a careful selection ofpersuasive and highly motivated guerrillas who move about within thepopulation, encouraging the people to support the guerrillas and put upresistance against the enemy. It combines a high degree of politicalawareness and the “armed” propaganda ability of the guerrillas toward aplanned, programmed, and controlled effort.The careful selection of the staff, based on their persuasiveness ininformal discussions and their ability in combat, is more important thantheir degree of education or the training program. The tactics of the ArmedPropaganda Teams are carried out covertly, and should be parallel to thetactical effort in guerrilla warfare. The knowledge of the psychology ofthe population is primary for the Armed Propaganda Teams, but much moreintelligence data will be obtained from an EPA program in the area ofoperations.5. Development and Control of the “Front” OrganizationsThe development and control of “front” (or facade) organizations iscarried out through subjective internal control at group meetings of”inside cadres,” and the calculations of the time for the fusion of thesecombined efforts to be applied to the masses.Established citizens-doctors, lawyers, businessmen, teachers, etc.-will be recruited initially as “Social Crusaders” in typically “innocuous”movements in the area of operations. When their “involvement” with theclandestine organization is revealed to them, this supplies thepsychological pressure to use them as “inside cadres” in groups to whichthey already belong or of which they can be members.Then they will receive instruction in techniques of persuasion overcontrol of target groups to support our democratic revolution, through agradual and skillful process. A cell control system isolates individualsfrom one another, and at the appropriate moment, their influence is usedfor the fusion of groups in a united national front.6. Control of Meetings and Mass AssembliesThe control of mass meetings in support of guerrilla warfare iscarried out internally through a covert commando element, bodyguards,messengers, shock forces (initiators of incidents), placard carriers (alsoused for making signals), shouters of slogans, everything under the controlof the outside commando element.When the cadres are placed or recruited in organizations such as laborunions, youth groups agrarian organizations or professional associations,they will begin to manipulate the objectives of the groups. Thepsychological apparatus of our movement through inside cadres prepares amental attitude which at the crucial moment can be turned into a fury ofjustified violence.Through a small group of guerrillas infiltrated within the masses thiscan be carried out; they will have the mission of agitating by giving theimpression that there are many of them and that they have a large popularbacking. Using the tactics of a force of 200-300 agitators, a demonstrationcan be created in which 10,000-20,000 persons take part.7. Support of Contacts with Their Roots in RealityThe support of local contacts who are familiar with the deep realityis achieved through the exploitation of the social and political weaknessesof the target society, with propagandist-combatant guerrillas, armedpropaganda, armed propaganda teams, cover organizations and mass meetings.The combatant-propagandist guerrilla is the result of a continuousprogram of indoctrination and motivation. They will have the mission ofshowing the people how great and fair our movement is in the eyes of allNicaraguans and the world. Identifying themselves with our people, theywill increase the sympathy towards our movement, which will result ingreater support of the population for the freedom commandos, taking awaysupport for the regime in power.Armed propaganda will extend this identification process of the peoplewith the Christian guerrillas, providing converging points against theSandinista regime.The Armed Propaganda Teams provide a several-stage program ofpersuasive planning in guerrilla warfare in all areas of the country. Also,these teams are the “eyes and ears” of our movement.The development and control of the cover organizations in guerrillawarfare will give our movement the ability to create a “whiplash” effectwithin the population when the order for fusion is given. When theinfiltration and internal subjective control have been developed in amanner parallel to other guerrilla activities, a comandante of ours willliterally be able to shake up the Sandinista structure, and replace it.The mass assemblies and meetings are the culmination of a wide basesupport among the population, and it comes about in the later phases of theoperation. This is the moment in which the overthrow can be achieved andour revolution can become an open one, requiring the close collaboration ofthe entire population of the country, and of contacts with their roots inreality.The tactical effort in guerrilla warfare is directed at the weaknessesof the enemy and at destroying their military resistance capacity, andshould be parallel to a psychological effort to weaken and destroy theirsociopolitical capacity at the same time. In guerrilla warfare, more thanin any other type of military effort, the psychological activities shouldbe simultaneous with the military ones, in order to achieve the objectivesdesired.COMBATANT-PROPAGANDIST GUERRILLA1. GeneralitiesThe objective of this section is to familiarize the guerrilla with thetechniques of psychological operations, which maximizes the social-psychological effect of a guerrilla movement, converting the guerrilla intoa propagandist, in addition to being a combatant. The nature of theenvironment in guerrilla warfare does not permit sophisticated facilitiesfor psychological operations, so that use should be made of the effectiveface-to-face persuasion of each guerrilla.2. Political AwarenessThe individual political awareness of the guerrilla, the reason forhis struggle, will be as important as his ability in combat. This politicalawareness and motivation will be achieved:þ By improving the combat potential of the guerrilla by improvinghis motivation for fighting.þ By the guerrilla recognizing himself as a vital tie between thedemocratic guerrillas and the people, whose support is essentialfor the subsistence of both.þ By fostering the support of the population for the nationalinsurgence through the support for the guerrillas of the locale,which provides a psychological basis in the population forpolitics after the victory has been achieved.þ By developing trust in the guerrillas and in the population, forthe reconstruction of a local and national government.þ By promoting the value of participation by the guerrillas and thepeople in the civic affairs of the insurrection and in thenational programs.þ By developing in each guerrilla the ability of persuasion face-to-face, at the local level, to win the support of thepopulation, which is essential for success in guerrilla warfare.3. Group DynamicsThis political awareness-building and motivation are attained by theuse of group dynamics at the level of small units. The group discussionmethod and self-criticism are a general guerrilla training and operationstechnique.Group discussions raise the spirit and increase the unity of thoughtin small guerrilla groups and exercise social pressure on the weakestmembers to better carry out their mission in training and future combatactions. These group discussions will give special emphasis to:þ Creating a favorable opinion of our movement. Through local andnational history, make it clear that the Sandinista regime is”foreignizing,” “repressive” and “imperialistic,” and that eventhough there are some Nicaraguans within the government, pointout that they are “puppets” of the power of the Soviets andCubans, i.e. of foreign power.þ Always a local focus. Matters of an international nature will beexplained only in support of local events in the guerrillawarfare.þ The unification of the nation is our goal. This means that thedefeat of the Sandinista armed forces is our priority. Ourinsurrectional movement is a pluralistic political platform fromwhich we are determined to win freedom, equality, a bettereconomy with work facilities, a higher standard of living, a truedemocracy for all Nicaraguans without exception.þ Providing to each guerrilla clear understanding about thestruggle for national sovereignty against Soviet-Cubanimperialism. Discussion guides will lead the guerrillas so thatthey will see the injustices of the Sandinista system.þ Showing each guerrilla the need for good behavior to win thesupport of the population. Discussion guides should convince theguerrillas that the attitude and opinion of the population play adecisive role, because victory is impossible without popularsupport.þ Self-criticism will be in constructive terms that will contributeto the mission of the movement, and which will provide theguerrillas with the conviction that they have a constant andpositive individual responsibility in the mission of the group.The method of instruction will be:a) division of the guerrilla force into squads for groupdiscussions, including command and support elements,whenever the tactical situation permits it. The makeup ofthe small units should be maintained when these groups aredesignated.b) Assignment of a political cadre in the guerrilla force toeach group to guide the discussion. The squad leader shouldhelp the cadre to foster study and the expression ofthoughts. If there are not enough political cadres for eachsquad or post, leaders should guide the discussions, and theavailable cadres visit alternate groups.c) It is appropriate for the cadre (or the leader) to guidethe discussion of a group to cover a number of points and toreach a correct conclusion. The guerrillas should feel thatit was their free and own decision. THe cadre should serveas a private teacher. The cadre or leader will not act as alecturer, but will help the members of the group to studyand express their own opinions.d) The political cadre will at the end of every discussionmake a summary of the principal points, leading them to thecorrect conclusions. Any serious difference with theobjectives of the movement should be noted by the cadre andreported to the comandante of the force. If necessary, acombined group meeting will be held and the team ofpolitical cadres will explain and rectify themisunderstanding.e) Democratic conduct by the political cadres: living,eating and working with the guerrillas, and if possible,fighting at their side, sharing their living conditions. Allof this will foster understanding and the spirit ofcooperation that will help in the discussion and exchange ofideas.f) Carry out group discussions in towns, and areas ofoperations whenever possible with the civilian population,and not limit them to camps or bases. This is done toemphasize the revolutionary nature of the struggle and todemonstrate that the guerrillas identified with theobjectives of the people move about within the population.The guerrilla projects himself toward the people, as thepolitical cadre does toward the guerrilla, and they shouldlive, eat and work together to realize a unity ofrevolutionary thought.The principles for guerrilla and political-cadre group discussionsare:þ Organize discussion groups at the post or squad level. A cadrecannot be sure of the comprehension and acceptance of theconcepts and conclusions by guerrillas in large groups. In agroup of the size of a squad of 10 men, the judgement and controlof the situation is greater. In this way, all students willparticipate in an exchange among them; the political leader, thegroup leader, and also the political cadre. Special attentionwill be given to the individual ability to discuss the objectivesof the insurrectional struggle. Whenever a guerrilla expresseshis opinion, he will be interested in listening to the opinionsof others, leading as a result to the unity of thought.þ Combine the different points of view and reach an opinion orcommon conclusion. This is the most difficult task of a politicalguerrilla cadre. After the group discussions of the democraticobjectives of the movement, the chief of the team of politicalcadres of the guerrilla force should combine the conclusions ofindividual groups in a general summary. At a meeting with all thediscussion groups, the cadre shall provide the principal points,and the guerrillas will have the opportunity to clarify or modifytheir points of view. To carry this out, the conclusions will besummarized in the form of slogans, wherever possible.þ Face with honesty the national and local problems of ourstruggle. THe political cadres should always be prepared todiscuss solutions to the problems observed by the guerrillas.During the discussions, the guerrillas should be guided by thefollowing three principles:þ Freedom of thought.þ Freedom of expression.þ Concentration of thoughts on the objectives of the democraticstruggle.The result desired is a guerrilla who in a persuasive manner canjustify all of his acts whenever he is in contact with any member of thetown/people, and especially with himself and with his guerrilla companionsby facing the vicissitudes of guerrilla warfare.This means that every guerrilla will come to have effective face-to-face persuasion as a combatant-propagandist in his contact with the people,to the point of giving 5-10 logical reasons why, e.g. a peasant should givehim a piece of cloth, or a needle and thread to mend his clothes. Whenbehaves in this manner, no type of propaganda of the enemy will be able tomake a “terrorist” of him in the eyes of the people.In addition, hunger, cold, fatigue and insecurity in the existence ofthe guerrilla acquire meaning in the cause of the struggle due to theconstant psychological orientation.4. Camp ProceduresEncamping the guerrilla units gives greater motivation, in addition toreducing distractions, and increases the spirit of cooperation of smallunits, relating the physical environment to the psychological one. Thesquad chief shall establish the regular camping procedure. Once thy havedivested themselves of their packs, the chief will choose the appropriateground for camping. He should select land that predominates over the zonewith two or three escape routes. He will choose among his men and give themresponsibilities such as:þ Clean the camp area.þ Provide adequate drainage in case of rain. Also build sometrenches or holes for marksmen in case of emergency. In addition,he will build a stove, which will be done by making some smalltrenches and placing three rocks in place; in case the stove isbuilt on a pedestal, it will be filled with clay and rocks.þ Build a windbreaking wall, which will be covered on the sides andon the top with branches and leaves of the same vegetation of thezones. This will serve for camouflaging and protecting it fromaerial visibility or from enemy patrols around.þ Construct a latrine and a hole where waste and garbage will beburied, which should be covered over at the time of abandoningthe camp.þ Once the camp has been set up, it is recommended that a watchmanbe positioned in the places of access at a prudent distance,where the shout of alarm can be heard. In the same moment thepassword will be established, which should be changed every 24hours. The commander should establish ahead of time an alternatemeeting point, in case of having to abandon the camp in a hurriedmanner, and they will be able to meet in the other alreadyestablished point, and they should warn the patrol that if at aparticular time they cannot meet at the established point, theshould have a third meeting point.These procedures contribute to the motivation of the guerrilla andimprove the spirit of cooperation in the unit. The danger, sense ofinsecurity, anxiety and daily concern in the life of a guerrilla requiretangible evidence of belonging in an order for him to keep up his spiritand morale.In addition to the good physical conditions in which the guerrillashould find himself, good psychological conditions are necessary, for whichgroup discussions and becoming a self=critic are recommended, which willgreatly benefit the spirit and morale of the same.Having broken camp with the effort and cooperation of everyonestrengthens the spirit of the group. The guerrilla will be inclined thentowards the unity of thought in democratic objectives.5. Interaction with the PeopleIn order to ensure popular support, essential for the good developmentof guerrilla warfare, the leaders should induce a positive interactionbetween the civilians and the guerrillas, through the principle of “live,eat , and work with the people,” and maintain control of their activities.In group discussions, the leaders and political cadres should give emphasisto positively identifying themselves with the people.It is not recommendable to speak of military tactical plans indiscussions with civilians. The Communist foe should be pointed out as thenumber one enemy of the people, and as a secondary threat against ourguerrilla forces.Whenever there is a chance, groups of members should be chosen whohave a high political awareness and high disciplinary conduct in the workto be carried out, in order to be sent to the populous areas in order todirect the armed propaganda, where they should persuade the people throughdialogue in face-to-face confrontations, where these principles should befollowed:þ Respect for human rights and others’ property.þ Helping the people in community work.þ Protecting the people from Communist aggressions.þ Teaching the people environmental hygiene, to read, etc., inorder to win their trust, which will lead to a better democraticideological preparation.This attitude will foster the sympathy of the peasants for ourmovement, and they will immediately become one of us, through logisticalsupport, coverage and intelligence information on the enemy orparticipation in combat. The guerrillas should be persuasive through theword and not dictatorial with weapons. If they behave in this way, thepeople will feel respected, will be more inclined to accept our message andwill consolidate into popular support.In any place in which tactical guerrilla operations are carried out inpopulous areas, the squad should undertake psychological actions parallelto these, and should proceed, accompany and consolidate the commonobjective and explain to all the people about our struggle, explaining thatour presence is to give peace, liberty and democracy to all Nicaraguanswithout exception, and explaining that out struggle is not against thenationals but rather against Russian imperialism. This will serve to ensuregreater Psychological achievements which will increase the operations ofthe future.6. ConclusionsThe nature of the environment in guerrilla warfare does not permitsophisticated facilities for psychological operations, and the face-to-facepersuasion of the guerrilla combatant-propagandists with the people is aneffective and available tool which we should use as much as possible duringthe process of the struggle.ARMED PROPAGANDA1. GeneralitiesFrequently a misunderstanding exists on “armed propaganda,” that thistactic is a compulsion of the people with arms. In reality, it does notinclude compulsion, but the guerrilla should know well the principles andmethods of this tactic. The objective of this section is to give theguerrilla student an understanding of the armed propaganda that should beused, and that will be able to be applied in guerrilla warfare.2. Close Identification with the PeopleArmed propaganda includes all acts carried out by an armed force,whose results improve the attitude of the people toward this force, and itdoes not include forced indoctrination. This is carried out by a closeidentification with the people on any occasion. For example:þ Putting aside weapons and working side by side with the peasantsin the countryside: building, fishing, repairing roofs,transporting water, etc.þ When working with the people, the guerrillas can use slogans suchas “many hands doing small things, but doing them together.”þ Participating in the tasks of the people, they can establish astrong tie between them and the guerrillas and at the same time apopular support for our movement is generated.During the patrols and other operations around or in the midst ofvillages, each guerrilla should be respectful and courteous with thepeople. In addition he should move with care and always be well prepared tofight, if necessary. But he should not always see all the people asenemies, with suspicions or hostility. Even in war, it is possible tosmile, laugh or greet people. Truly, the cause of our revolutionary base,the reason why we are struggling, is our people. We must be respectful tothem on all occasions that present themselves.In places and situations wherever possible, e.g. when they are restingduring the march, the guerrillas can explain the operation of weapons tothe youths and young men. They can show them an unloaded rifle so that theywill learn to load it and unload it; their use, and aiming at imaginarytargets they are potential recruits for our forces.The guerrillas should always be prepared with simple slogans in orderto explain to the people, whether in an intentional form or by chance, thereason for the weapons.”The weapons will be for winning freedom; the are for you.”“With weapons we can impose demands such as hospitals, schools, betterroads, and social services for the people, for you.”“Our weapons are, in truth, the weapons of the people, yours.”“With weapons we can change the Sandino-Communist regime and return tothe people a true democracy so that we will all have economicopportunities.”All of this should be designed to create an identification of thepeople with the weapons and the guerrillas who carry them. Finally, weshould make the people feel that we are thinking of them and that theweapons are the people’s, in order to help them and protect them from aCommunist, totalitarian, imperialist regime, indifferent to the needs ofthe population.3. Implicit and Explicit TerrorA guerrilla armed force always involves implicit terror because thepopulation, without saying it aloud, feels terror that the weapons may beused against them. However, if the terror does not become explicit,positive results can be expected.In a revolution, the individual lives under a constant threat ofphysical damage. If the government police cannot put an end to theguerrilla activities, the population will lose confidence in thegovernment, which has the inherent mission of guaranteeing the safety ofcitizens. However, the guerrillas should be careful not to become anexplicit terror, because this would result in a loss of popular support.In the words of a leader of the Huk guerrilla movement of thePhilippine Islands: “The population is always impressed by weapons, not bythe terror that they cause, but rather by a sensation of strength/force. Wemust appear before the people, giving them the message of the struggle.”This is, then, in a few words, the essence of armed propaganda.An armed guerrilla force can occupy an entire town or small city thatis neutral or relatively passive in the conflict. In order to conduct thearmed propaganda in an effective manner, the following should be carriedout simultaneously:þ Destroy the military or police installations and remove the survivors toa “public place.”þ Cut all the outside lines of communications: cables, radio, messengers.þ Set up ambushes in order to delay the reinforcements in all the possibleentry routes.þ Kidnap all officials or agents of the Sandinista government and replacethem in “public Places” with military or civilian persons of trust to ourmovement; in addition, carry out the following:þ Establish a public tribunal that depends on the guerrillas, and cover thetown or city in order to gather the population for this event.þ Shame, ridicule and humiliate the “personal symbols” of the government ofrepression in the presence of the people and foster popular participationthrough guerrillas within the multitude, shouting slogans and jeers.þ Reduce the influence of individuals in tune with the regime, pointing outtheir weaknesses and taking them out of the town, without damaging thempublicly.þ Mix the guerrillas within the population and show very good conduct byall members of the column, practicing the following:Any article taken will be paid for with cash.The hospitality offered by the people will be accepted and thisopportunity will be exploited in order to carry out face-to-facepersuasion about the struggle.Courtesy visits should be made to the prominent persons and those withprestige in the place, such as doctors, priests, teachers, etc.The guerrillas should instruct the population that with the end of theoperative, and when the Sandinista repressive forces interrogate them,they may reveal EVERYTHING about the military operation carried out.For example, the type of weapons they use, ho many men arrived, fromwhat direction they came and in what direction they left, in short,EVERYTHING.In addition, indicate to the population that at meetings or in privatediscussion they can give the names of the Sandinista informants, whowill be removed together with the other officials of the government ofrepression.When a meeting is held, conclude it with a speech by one of theleaders of guerrilla political cadres (the most dynamic), which includesexplicit references to:The fact that the “enemies of the people” — the officials orSandinista agents — must not be mistreated in spite of their criminalacts, although the guerrilla force may have suffered casualties, and thatthis is done due to the generosity of the Christian guerrillas.Give a declaration of gratitude for the “hospitality” of thepopulation, as well as let them know that the risks that they will run whenthe Sandinistas return are greatly appreciated.The fact that the Sandinista regime, although it exploits the peoplewith taxes, control of money, grains and all aspects of public life throughassociations, which they are forced to become part of, will not be able toresist the attacks of our guerrilla forces.Make the promise to the people that you will return to ensure that the”leeches” of the Sandinista regime of repression will not be able to hinderour guerrillas from integrating with the population.A statement repeated to the population to the effect that they canreveal everything about this visit of our commandos, because we are notafraid of anything or anyone, neither the Soviets nor the Cubans. Emphasizethat we are Nicaraguans, that we are fighting for the freedom of Nicaraguaand to establish a very Nicaraguan government.4. Guerrilla Weapons Are The Strength of the People over an IllegalGovernmentThe armed propaganda in populated areas does not give the impressionthat weapons are the power of the guerrillas over the people, but ratherthat the weapons are the strength of the people against a regime ofrepression. Whenever it is necessary to use armed force in an occupation orvisit to a town or village, guerrillas should emphasize making sure thatthey:þ Explain to the population that in the first place this is being done toprotect them, the people, and not themselves.þ Admit frankly and publicly that this is an “act of the democraticguerrilla movement,” with appropriate explanations.þ That this action, although it is not desirable, is necessary because thefinal objective of the insurrection is a free and democratic society, whereacts of force are not necessary.þ The force of weapons is a necessity caused by the oppressive system, andwill cease to exist when the “forces of justice” of our movement assumecontrol.If, for example, it should be necessary for one of the advanced poststo have to fire on a citizen who was trying to leave the town or city inwhich the guerrillas are carrying out armed propaganda or politicalproselytism, the following is recommended:þ Explain that if that citizen had managed to escape, he would have alertedthe enemy that is near the town or city, and they could carry out acts ofreprisal such as rapes, pillage, destruction, captures, etc., it this wayterrorizing the inhabitants of the place for having given attention andhospitalities to the guerrillas of the town.þ If a guerrilla fires at an individual, make the town see that he was anenemy of the people, and that they shot him because the guerrillarecognized as their first duty the protection of citizens.þ The command tried to detain the informant without firing because he, likeall Christian guerrillas, espouses nonviolence. Firing at the Sandinistainformant, although it is against his own will, was necessary to preventthe repression of the Sandinista government against innocent people.þ Make the population see that it was the repressive system of the regimethat was the cause of this situation, what really killed the informer, andthat the weapon fired was one recovered in combat against the Sandinistaregime.þ Make the population see that if the Sandinista regime had ended therepression, the corruption backed by foreign powers, etc., the freedomcommandos would not have had to brandish arms against brother Nicaraguans,which goes against our Christian sentiments. If the informant hadn’t triedto escape he would be enjoying life together with the rest of thepopulation, because not have tried to inform the enemy. This death wouldhave been avoided if justice and freedom existed in Nicaragua, which isexactly the objective of the democratic guerrilla.5. Selective Use of Violence for Propagandistic EffectsIt is possible to neutralize carefully selected and planned targets,such as court judges, mesta judges, police and State Security officials,CDS chiefs, etc. For psychological purposes it is necessary to gathertogether the population affected, so that they will be present, take partin the act, and formulate accusations against the oppressor.The target or person should be chosen on the basis of:þ The spontaneous hostility that the majority of the population feelstoward the target.þ Use rejection or potential hatred by the majority of the populationaffected toward the target, stirring up the population and making them seeall the negative and hostile actions of the individual against the people.þ If the majority of the people give their support or backing to the targetor subject, do not try to change these sentiments through provocation.þ Relative difficulty of controlling the person who will replace thetarget.The person who will replace the target should be chosen carefully,based on:þ Degree of violence necessary to carry out the change.þ Degree of violence acceptable to the population affected.þ Degree of predictable reprisal by the enemy on the population affected orother individuals in the area of the target.The mission to replace the individual should be followed by:þ Extensive explanation within the population affected of the reason why itwas necessary for the good of the people.þ Explain that Sandinista retaliation is unjust, indiscriminate, and aboveall, a justification for the execution of this mission.þ Carefully test the reaction of the people toward the mission, as well ascontrol this reaction, making sure that the populations reaction isbeneficial towards the Freedom Commandos.6. ConclusionsArmed propaganda includes all acts executed and the impact achieved byan armed force, which as a result produces positive attitudes in thepopulation toward this force, and it does not include forcedindoctrination. However, armed propaganda is the most effective availableinstrument of a guerrilla force.ARMED PROPAGANDA TEAMS (APTs)1. GeneralitiesIn contact with the very reality of their roots, in a psychologicaloperation campaign in guerrilla warfare, the comandantes will be able toobtain maximum psychological results from an Armed Propaganda program. Thissection is to inform the guerrilla student as to what Armed PropagandaTeams are in the environment of guerrilla warfare.2. Combination: Political Awareness and Armed PropagandaThe Armed Propaganda Teams combine political awareness-building witharmed propaganda, which will be carried out by carefully selectedguerrillas (preferably with experience in combat), for personal persuasionwithin the population.The selection of the staff is more important than the training,because we cannot train guerrilla cadres just to show the sensations ofardor and fervor, which are essential for person-to-person persuasion. Moreimportant is the training of persons who are intellectually agile anddeveloped.An Armed Propaganda Team includes from 6 to 10 members; this number ora smaller number is ideal, since there is more camaraderie, solidarity andgroup spirit. The themes to deal with are assimilated more rapidly and themembers react more rapidly to unforeseen situations.In addition to the combination as armed propagandist-combatant eachmember of the team should be well prepared to carry out permanent person-to-person communication, face-to-face.The leader of the group should be the commando who is the most highlymotivated politically and the most effective in face-to-face persuasion.The position, hierarchy or range will not be decisive for carrying out thatfunction, but rather who is best qualified for communication with thepeople.The source of basic recruitment for guerrilla cadres will be the samesocial groups of Nicaraguans to whom the psychological campaign isdirected, such as peasants, students, professionals, housewives, etc. Thecampesinos (peasants) should be made to see that they do not have lands;the workers that the State is putting an end to factories and industries;the doctors, that they are being replaced by Cuban paramedics, and that asdoctors they cannot practice their profession due to lack of medicines. Arequirement for recruiting them will be their ability to express themselvesin public.The selection of the personnel is more important than the training.The political awareness-building and the individual capabilities ofpersuasion will be shown in the group discussions for motivation of theguerrilla as a propagandist-combatant chosen as cadres to organize them inteams, that is, those who have the greatest capacity for this work.The training of guerrillas for Armed Propaganda Teams emphasizes themethod and not the content. A two-week training period is sufficient if therecruitment is done in the form indicated. If a mistaken process ofrecruitment has been followed, however good the training provided, theindividual chosen will not yield a very good result.The training should be intensive for 14 days, through teamdiscussions, alternating the person who leads the discussion among themembers of the group.The subjects to be dealt with will be the same, each day a differenttheme being presented, for a varied practice.The themes should refer to the conditions of the place and the meaningthat they have for the inhabitants of the locality, such as talking ofcrops, fertilizers, seeds, irrigation of crops, etc. They can also includethe following topics:þ Sawed wood, carpenters’ tools for houses or other buildings.þ Boats, roads, horses, oxen for transportation, fishing,agriculture.þ Problems that they may have in the place with residents, officesof the regime, imposed visitors, etc.þ Force labor, service in the militia.þ Forced membership in Sandinista groups, such as women’s clubs,youth associations, workers’ groups, etc.þ Availability and prices of consumer articles and of basic needsin the grocery stores and shops of the place.þ Characteristics of education in the public schools.þ Anxiety of the people over the presence of Cuban teachers in theschools and the intrusion of politics, i.e. using them forpolitical ends and not educational ones as should be.þ Indignation over the lack of freedom of worship, and persecution,of which priests are victims; and over the participation ofpriests such as Escoto and Cardenal in the Sandinista government,against the explicit orders of his Holiness, the Pope.NOTE: Members of the team can develop other themes.The target groups for the Armed Propaganda Teams are not the personswith sophisticated political knowledge, but rather those whose opinion areformed from what they see and hear. The cadres should use persuasion tocarry out their mission. Some of the persuasive methods that they can useare the following:Interior Group/Exterior Group. It is a principle of psychology that wehumans have the tendency to form personal associations from “we” and “theothers,” or “we” and “they”, “friends” and “enemies,” “fellow countrymen”and “foreigners,” “mestizos” and “gringos.”The Armed Propaganda Team can use this principle in its activities, sothat it is obvious that the “exterior” groups (”false” groups) are those ofthe Sandinista regime, and that the “interior” groups (”true” groups) thatfight for the people are the Freedom Commandos.We should inculcate this in the people in a subtle manner so thatthese feelings seem to be born of themselves, spontaneously.”Against” is much easier that “for.” It is a principle of politicalscience that it is easier to persuade the people to vote against somethingor someone than to persuade them to vote in favor of something or someone.Although currently the regime has not given the Nicaraguan people theopportunity to vote, it is known that the people will vote in opposition,so that the Armed Propaganda Teams can use this principle in favor of ourinsurrectional struggle. They should ensure that this campaign is directedspecifically against the government or its sympathizers, since the peopleshould have specific targets for their frustrations.Primary Groups and Secondary Groups. Another principle of sociology isthat we humans forge or change our opinions from two sources: primarily,through our association with our family, comrades, or intimate friends; andsecondarily, through distant associations such as acquaintances inchurches, clubs or committees, labor unions or governmental organizations.The Armed Propaganda Team cadres should join the first groups in order topersuade them to follow the policies of our movement, because it is fromthis type of group that the opinions or changes of opinion come.Techniques of Persuasion in Talks or Speeches:Be Simple and Concise. You should avoid the use of difficult words orexpressions and prefer popular words and expressions, i.e. the language ofthe people. In dealing with a person you should make use of conciselanguage, avoiding complicated words. It is important to remember that weuse oratory to make our people understand the reason for our struggle, andnot to show off our knowledge.Use Lively and Realistic Examples. Avoid abstract concepts, such asare used in universities in the advanced years, and in place of them, giveconcrete examples such as children playing, horses galloping, birds inflight, etc.Use Gestures to Communicate. Communication, in addition to beingverbal, can be through gestures, such as using our hands expressively, backmovements, facial expressions, focusing of our look and other aspects of”body language,” projecting the individual personality in the message.Use the Appropriate Tone of Voice. If, on addressing the people, youtalk about happiness, a happy tone should be used. If you talk of somethingsad, the tone of the voice should be one of sadness; on talking of a heroicor brave act, the voice should be animated, etc.Above All, Be Natural, Imitation of others should be avoided, sincethe people, especially simple people, easily distinguish a fake. Theindividual personality should be projected when addressing the population.3. “Eyes and Ears” Within the PopulationThe amount of information for intelligence that will be generated bythe deployment of the Armed Propaganda Teams will allow us to cover a largearea with out commandos, who will become the eyes and ears of our movementwithin the population:The combined reports of an Armed Propaganda Team will provide us withexact details on the enemy activities.The intelligence information obtained by the Armed Propaganda Teamsshould be reported to the chiefs. However, it is necessary to emphasizethat the first mission of the Armed Propaganda Teams is to carry outpsychological operations, not to obtain data for intelligence.Any intelligence report will be made through the outside contact ofthe Armed Propaganda Team, in order not to compromise the population.The Armed Propaganda cadres are able to do what others in a guerrillacampaign cannot do: determine personally the development or deteriorationof the popular support and the sympathy or hostility that the people feeltoward our movement.The Armed Propaganda Team program, in addition to being very effectivepsychologically, increases the guerrilla capacity in obtaining and usinginformation.In addition, the Armed Propaganda cadre will report to his superiorthe reaction of the people to the radio broadcasts, the insurrectionalflyers, or any other means of propaganda of ours.Expressions or gestures of the eyes, or face, the tone and strength ofthe voice, and the use of the appropriate words greatly affect the face-to-face persuasion of the people.With the intelligence reports supplied by the Armed Propaganda Teams,the comandantes will be able to have exact knowledge of the popularsupport, which they will make use of in their operations.4. Psychological Tactics, Maximum FlexibilityPsychological tactics will have the greatest flexibility within ageneral plan, permitting a continuous and immediate adjustment of themessage, and ensuring that an impact is caused on the indicated targetgroup at the moment in which it is the most susceptible.Tactically, an Armed Propaganda Equipment program should cover themajority and if possible all of the operational area. The communities inwhich this propaganda is carried out should not necessarily form politicalunits with an official nature. A complete understanding of their structureor organization is not necessary because the cadres will work by applyingsocio-political action and not academic theory.The target populations of the Armed Propaganda Teams will be chosenfor being part of the operational area, and not for their size or amount ofland.The objective should be the people and not the territorial area.In this respect, each work team will be able to cover some six townsapproximately, in order to develop popular support for our movement.The Team should always move in a covert manner within the towns oftheir area.They should vary their route radically, but not their itinerary,. Thisis so that the inhabitants who are cooperating will be dependent on theiritinerary, i.e., the hour in which they can frequently contact them to givethem the information.The danger of betrayal or an ambush can be neutralized by varying theitinerary a little, using different routes, as well as arriving or leavingwithout previous warning.Whenever the surprise factor is used, vigilance should be kept inorder to detect the possible presence of hostile elements.No more than three consecutive days should be spent in a town.The limit of three days has obvious tactical advantages, but it alsohas a psychological effect on the people, on seeing the team as a source ofcurrent and up-to-date information. Also, it can overexpose the targetaudience and cause a negative reaction.Basic tactical precautions should be taken. This is necessary forgreater effectiveness, as was indicated in dealing with the subject of”Armed Propaganda,” and when it is carried out discreetly, it increases therespect of the people for the team and increases their credibility.The basic procedures are: covert elements that carry out vigilancebefore and after the departure and in intervals. There should be two atleast, and they should meet at a predetermined point upon a signal, or inview of any hostile action.The team’s goal is to motivate the entire population of a place, butto constantly remain aware that defined target groups exist within thisgeneral configuration of the public.Although meetings may be held in the population, the cadres shouldrecognize and keep in contact with the target groups, mixing with thembefore, during and after the meeting. The method for holding this type ofmeeting was included in the topic “Armed Propaganda,” and will be coveredin greater detail under the title “Control of Mass Meetings andDemonstrations.”The basic focus of the Armed Propaganda cadres should be on theresidents of the town,where their knowledge as formers of opinion can beapplied.In the first visits of identification with the inhabitants, theguerrilla cadres will be courteous and humble. They can work in the fieldsor in any other form in which their abilities can contribute to theimprovement of the living style of the inhabitants of the place, winningtheir trust and talking with them; helping to repair the fences of theircattle; the cleaning of the same, collaborating in the vaccination of theiranimals; teaching them to read, i.e., closely together in all the tasks ofthe peasant or the community.In his free time, our guerrilla should mix in with the communitygroups and participate with them in pastoral activities, parties,birthdays, and even in wakes or burials of the members of said community;he will try to converse with both adults and adolescents. |He will try topenetrate to the heart of the family, in order to win the acceptance andtrust of all of the residents of that sector.The Armed Propaganda Team cadres will give ideological training,mixing these instructions with folkloric songs, and at the same time hewill tell stories that have some attraction, making an effort to make themrefer to heroic acts of our ancestors. He will also try to tell stories ofheroism of our combatants in the present struggle so that listeners try toimitate them. It is important to let them know that there are othercountries in the world where freedom and democracy cause those governing tobe concerned over the well-being of their people, so that the children havemedical care and free education; where also they are concerned thateveryone have work and food, and all freedoms such as those of religion,association and expression; where the greatest objective of the governmentis to keep its people happy.The cadres should not make mention of their political ideology duringthe first phase of identification with the people, and they should orienttheir talks to things that are pleasing to the peasants or the listeners,trying to be as simple as possible in order to be understood.The tactical objectives for identification with the people are thefollowing:To establish tight relations through identification with the people,through their very customs.To determine the basic needs and desires of the different targetgroups.To discover the weaknesses of the governmental control.Little by little, to sow the seed of democratic revolution, in orderto change the vices of the regime towards a new order of justice andcollective well-being.In the motivation of the target groups, by the Armed Propaganda Teams,the cadre should apply themes of “true~ groups and themes of “false”groups. The true group will correspond to the target group and the falseone to the Sandinista regime.For the economic interest groups, such as small businessmen andfarmers, it should be emphasized that their potential progress is “limited”by the Sandinista government, that resources are scarcer and scarcer, theearnings/profits minimal, taxes high, etc. This can be applied toentrepreneurs of transportation and others.For the elements ambitious for power and social positions, it will beemphasized that they will never be able to belong to the governmentalsocial class, since they are hermetic in their circle of command. Example,the nine Sandinista leaders do not allow other persons to participate inthe government, and they hinder the development of the economic and socialpotential of those like him, who have desires of overcoming this, which isunjust and arbitrary.Social and intellectual criticisms. They should be directed at theprofessionals, professors, teachers, priests, missionaries, students andothers. Make them see that their writings, commentaries or conversationsare censored, which does not make it possible to correct these problems.Once the needs and frustrations of the target groups have beendetermined, the hostility of the people to the “false” groups will becomemore direct, against the current regime and its system of repression. Thepeople will be made to see that once this system or structure has beeneliminated, the cause of their frustration s would be eliminated and theywould be able to fulfill their desires. It should be shown to thepopulation that supporting the insurrection is really supporting their owndesires, since the democratic movement is aimed at the elimination of thesespecific problems.As a general rule, the Armed Propaganda teams should avoidparticipating in combat. However, if this is not possible, they shouldreact as a guerrilla unit with tactics of “hit and run,” causing the enemythe greatest amount of casualties with aggressive assault fire, recoveringenemy weapons and withdrawing rapidly.One exception to the rule to avoid combat will be when in the townthey are challenged by hostile actions, whether by an individual or whetherby a number of men of an enemy team.The hostility of one or two men can be overcome by eliminating theenemy in a rapid and effective manner. This is the most common danger.When the enemy is equal in the number of its forces, there should bean immediate retreat, and then the enemy should be ambushed or eliminatedby means of sharp-shooters.In any of the cases, the Armed Propaganda Team cadres should not turnthe town into a battleground. Generally, our guerrilla will be betterarmed, so that they will obtain greater respect from the population if theycarry out appropriate maneuvers instead of endangering their lives, or evendestroying their houses in an encounter with the enemy within the town.5. A Comprehensive Team Program – Mobile InfrastructureThe psychological operations through the Armed Propaganda Teamsinclude the infiltration of key guerrilla communicators (i.e., ArmedPropaganda Team cadres) into the population of the country, instead ofsending messages to them through outside sources, thus creating our “mobileinfrastructure.”A “mobile infrastructure” is a cadre of our Armed Propaganda Teammoving about, i.e., keeping in touch with six or more populations, fromwhich his source of information will come; and at the same time it willserve so that at the appropriate time they will become integrated in thecomplete guerrilla movement.In this way, an Armed Propaganda Team program in the operational areabuilds for our comandantes in the countryside constant source of datagathering (infrastructure) in all the area. It is also a means fordeveloping or increasing popular support, for recruiting new members andfor obtaining provisions.In addition, an Armed Propaganda Team program allows the expansion ofthe guerrilla movement, since they can penetrate areas that are not underthe control of the combat units. In this way, through an exact evaluationof the combat units they will be able to plan their operations moreprecisely, since they will have certain knowledge of the existingconditions.The comandantes will remember that this type of operation is similarto the Fifth Column, which was used in the first part of the Second WorldWar, and which through infiltration and subversion tactics allowed theGermans to penetrate the target countries before the invasions. Theymanaged to enter Poland, Belgium, Holland and France in a month, and Norwayin a week. The effectiveness of this tactic has been clearly demonstratedin several wars and can be used effectively by the Freedom Commandos.The activities of the Armed Propaganda Teams run some risks, but nomore than any other guerrilla activity. However, the Armed Propaganda Teamsare essential for the success of the struggle.6. ConclusionsIn the same way that the explorers are the “eyes and “ears” of apatrol, or of a column on the march, the Armed Propaganda Teams are alsothe source of information, the “antennas” of our movement, because theyfind and exploit the sociopolitical weaknesses in the target society,making possible a successful operation.DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL OF FRONT ORGANIZATIONS1. GeneralitiesThe development and control of front organizations (or “facade”organizations) is an essential process in the guerrilla effort to carry outthe insurrection. That is, in truth, an aspect of urban guerrilla warfare,but it should advance parallel to the campaign in the rural area. Thissection has as its objective to give the guerrilla student an understandingof the development and control of front organizations in guerrilla warfare.2. Initial RecruitmentThe initial recruitment to the movement, if it is involuntary, will becarried out through several “private” consultations with a cadre (withouthis knowing that he is talking to a member of ours). Then, the recruit willbe informed that he or she is already inside the movement, and he will beexposed to the police of the regime if he or she does not cooperate.When the guerrillas carry out missions of armed propaganda and aprogram of regular visits to the towns by the Armed Propaganda Teams, thesecontacts will provide the commandos with the names and places of personswho can be recruited. The recruitment, which will be voluntary, is donethrough visits by guerrilla leaders or political cadres.After a chain of voluntary recruitments has been developed, and thetrustworthiness of the recruits has been established by their carrying outsmall missions, they will be instructed about increasing/widening the chainby recruiting in specific target groups, in accordance with the followingprocedure:From among their acquaintances or through observation of the targetgroups – political parties, workers’ unions, youth groups, agrarianassociations, etc. – finding out the personal habits, preferences andbiases, as well as the weaknesses of the “recruitable” individuals.Make an approach through an acquaintance, and if possible, develop afriendship, attracting him through his preferences or weaknesses: it mightbe inviting him for lunch in the restaurant of his choice or having a drinkin his favorite cantina or an invitation to dinner in the place he prefers.Recruitment should follow one of the following guidelines:þ If in an informal conversation the target seems susceptible tovoluntary recruitment based on his beliefs and personal values, etc.,the political cadre assigned to carry out the recruitments will benotified of this. The original contact will indicate to the cadreassigned, in detail, all he knows of the prospective recruit, and thestyle of persuasion to be used, introducing the two.þ If the target does not seem to be susceptible to voluntaryrecruitment, meetings can be arranged which seem casual with theguerrilla leaders or with the political cadres (unknown by the targetuntil that moment). The meetings will be held so that “other persons”know that the target is attending them, whether they see him arrive ata particular house, seated at the table in a particular bar or evenseated on a park bench. The target, then, is faced with the fact ofhis participation in the insurrectional struggle and it will beindicated to him also that if he fails to cooperate or to carry outfuture orders, he will be subjected to reprisals by the police orsoldiers of the regime.þ The notification of the police, denouncing a target who does notwant to join the guerrillas, can be carried out easily, when itbecomes necessary, through a letter with false statements of citizenswho are not implicated in the movement. Care should be taken that theperson who recruited him covertly is not discovered.þ With the carrying out of clandestine missions for the movement, theinvolvement and handing over of every recruit is done gradually on awider and wider scale, and confidence increases. This should be agradual process, in order to prevent confessions from fearfulindividuals who have been assigned very difficult or dangerousmissions too early.Using this recruitment technique, our guerrillas will be able tosuccessfully infiltrate any key target group in the regime, in order toimprove the internal control of the enemy structure.3. Established Citizens, Subjective Internal ControlEstablished citizens, such as doctors, lawyers, businessmen,landholders, minor state officials, etc., will be recruited to the movementand used for subjective internal control of groups and associations towhich they belong or may belong.Once the recruitment/involvement has been brought about, and hasprogressed to the point that allows that specific instructions be given tointernal cadres to begin to influence their groups, instructions will begiven to them to carry out the following:þ The process is simple and only requires a basic knowledge of theSocrates dialectic: that is the knowledge that is inherent to anotherperson or the established position of a group, some theme, some wordor some thought related to the objective of persuasion of the personin charge of our recruitment.þ The cadre then must emphasize this theme, word or thought in thediscussions or meetings of the target group, through a casualcommentary, which improves the focus of other members of the group inrelation to this. Specific examples are:Economic interest groups are motivated by profit and generally feelthat the system hinders the use of their capability in this effort in someway, taxes, import-export tariffs, transportation costs, etc. The cadre incharge will increase this feeling of frustration in later conversations.Political aspirants, particularly if the are not successful, feel thatthe system discriminates against them unfairly, limiting theircapabilities, because the Sandinista regime does not allow elections. Thecadres should focus political discussions towards this frustration.Intellectual social critics (such as professors, teachers, priests,missionaries, etc.), generally feel that the government ignores their validcriticism or censors their comments unjustly, especially in a situation ofrevolution. This can easily be shown by the guerrilla cadre at meetings anddiscussions, to be an injustice of the system.For all the target groups, after they have established frustrations,the hostility towards the obstacles to their aspirations will graduallybecome transferred to the current regime and its system of repression.The guerrilla cadre moving among the target groups should alwaysmaintain a low profile, so that the development of hostile feelings towardsthe false Sandinista regime seems to come spontaneously from the members ofthe group and not from suggestions of the cadres. This is internalsubjective control.Antigovernmental hostility should be generalized, and not necessarilyin our favor. If a group develops a feeling in our favor, it can beutilized. But the main objective is to precondition the target groups forthe fusion in mass organizations later in the operation, when otheractivities have been successfully undertaken.4. Organizations of Cells for SecurityInternal cadres of our movement should organize into cells of threepersons, only one of them maintaining outside contact.The cell of three persons is the basic element of the movement, withfrequent meetings to receive orders and pass information to the cellleader. These meetings are also very important for mutually reinforcing themembers of the cell, as well as their morale. They should exercisecriticism of themselves on the realization or failures in carrying outindividual subjective control missions.The coordination of the three-member cell provides a security net forreciprocal communication, each member having contact with only anoperational cell. The members will not reveal at the cell coordinationmeetings the identity of their contact in an operational cell; they willreveal only the nature of the activity in which the cell is involved, e.g.,political party work, medical association work, etc.There is no hierarchy in cells outside of an element of coordination,who is the leader, who will have direct but covert contact with ourguerrilla comandante in the zone or operational area. The previous diagramdoes not indicate which new operational cell is the limit, but it indicatesthat for every three operational cells, we need a coordination cell.5. Fusion in a “Cover” OrganizationThe fusion of organizations recognized by the Sandinista government,such as associations and other groups, through internal subjective control,occurs in the final stages of the operation, in a tight connection withmass meetings.When the guerrilla armed action has expanded sufficiently, armedpropaganda missions will be carried out on a large scale: propaganda teamswill have clearly developed open support of the institutions; the enemysystem of target groups will be well infiltrated and preconditioned. At thepoint at which mass meetings are held, the internal cadres should begindiscussions for the “fusion” of forces into an organization – thisorganization will be a “cover” source of our movement.Any other target group will be aware that other groups are developinggreater hostility to the government., the police and the traditional legalbases of authority. The guerrilla cadres tn that group – for example,teachers – will cultivate this awareness-building, making comments such as”So-and-so, who is a farmer, said that the members of his cooperativebelieve that the new economic policy is absurd, poorly planned and unfairto the farmers.”When the awareness-building is increased, in the sense that othergroups feel hostility towards the regime, the group discussions are heldopenly and our movement will be able to receive reports that the majorityof their operatives are united in common, greater hostility against theregime. This will be developed and the order to fuse/join will come about.The fusion into a “cover” front is carried out thusly:þ Internal cadres of our movement will meet with people such aspresidents, leaders, and others, at organized meetings chaired by thegroup chief of our movement. Two or three escorts can assist theguerrilla cadre if it becomes necessary.þ Publish a joint communique on this meeting, announcing the creationof the “cover” front, including names and signatures of theparticipants, and names of the organizations that they represent.After releasing this communique, mass meetings should be initiated,which should have as a goal the destruction of the Sandinista control.6. ConclusionsThe development and control of the “cover” organizations in aguerrilla war will give our movement the ability to create the “whiplash”effect within the population, when the order for fusion is gives. When theinfiltration and internal subjective control have been developed parallelwith other guerrilla activities, a democratic guerrilla commander willliterally be able to shake up the Sandinista structure and replace it.CONTROL OF MASS CONCENTRATIONS AND MEETINGS1. GeneralitiesIn the last stages of a guerrilla war, mass concentrations andmeetings are a powerful psychological tool for carrying out the mission.This section has as its objective giving the guerrilla student training ontechniques for controlling mass concentrations and meetings in guerrillawarfare.2. Infiltration of Guerrilla CadresInfiltration of guerrilla cadres (whether a member of our movement oroutside element) in workers’ unions, student groups, peasant organizations,etc., preconditioning these groups for behavior within the masses, wherethey will have to carry proselytism for the instructional struggle in aclandestine manner.þ Our psychological war team should prepare in advance a hostilemental attitude among the target groups so that at the decisive momentthey can turn their furor into violence, demanding their rights thathave been trampled upon by the regime.þ These preconditioning campaigns must be aimed at the politicalparties, professional organizations, students, laborers, the masses ofthe unemployed, the ethnic minorities and any other sector of societythat is vulnerable or recruitable; this also includes the popularmasses and sympathizers of our movement.þ The basic objective of a preconditioning campaign is to create anegative “image” of the common enemy, e.g.:Describe the managers of collective government entities as tryingto treat the staff the way “slave foremen” do.The police mistreat the people like the Communist “Gestapo” does.The government officials of National Reconstruction are puppetsof Russian-Cuban imperialism.Our psychological war cadres will create compulsive obsessions ofa temporary nature in places of public concentrations, constantlyhammering away at the themes pointed out or desired, the same asin group gatherings; in informal conversations expressingdiscontent; in addition passing out brochures and flyers, andwriting editorial articles both on the radio and in newspapers,focused on the intention of preparing the mind of the people ofthe decisive moment, which will erupt in general violence.In order to facilitate the preconditioning of the masses, weshould often use phrases to make the people see, such as:The taxes that they pay the government do not benefit the peopleat all, but rather are uses as a form of exploitation in order toenrich those governing.Make it plain to the people that they have become slaves, thatthey are being exploited by privileged military and politicalgroups.þ The foreign advisers and their counseling programs are in reality”interveners” in our homeland, who direct the exploitation of thenation in accordance with the objectives of the Russian and Cubanimperialists, in order to turn our people into slaves of the hammerand sickle.3. Selection of Appropriate SlogansThe leaders of the guerrilla warfare classify their slogans inaccordance with the circumstances with the aim of mobilizing the masses ina wide scale of activities and at the highest emotional level.When the mass uprising is being developed, our covert cadres shouldmake partial demands, initially demanding, e.g. “We want food,” “We wantfreedom of worship,” “We want union freedom” – steps that will lead ustoward the realization of the goals of our movement, which are: GOD,HOMELAND and DEMOCRACY.If a lack of organization and command is noted in the enemy authority,and the people find themselves in a state of exaltation, advantage can betaken of this circumstance so that our agitators will raise the tone of therallying slogans, taking them to the most strident point.If the masses are not emotionally exalted, our agitators will continuewith the “partial” slogans, and the demands will be based on daily needs,chaining them to the goals of our movement.An example of the need to give simple slogans is that few people thinkin terms of millions of cordobas, but any citizen, however humble he maybe, understands that a pair of shoes is necessary. The goals of themovement are of an ideological nature, but our agitators must realize thatfood – “bread and butter,” “the tortilla and red beans” – pull along thepeople, and it should be understood that this is their main mission.4. Creation of NucleiThis involves the mobilization of a specific number of agitators ofthe guerrilla organization of the place. This group will inevitably attractan equal number of curious persons who seek adventures and emotions, aswell as those unhappy with the system of government. The guerrillas willattract sympathizers, discontented citizens as a consequence of therepression of the system. Each guerrilla subunit will be assigned specifictasks and missions that they should carry out.Our cadres will be mobilized in the largest number possible, togetherwith persons who have been affected by the Communist dictatorship, whethertheir possessions have been stolen from them, they have been incarcerated,or tortured, or suffered from any other type of aggression against them.They will be mobilized toward the areas where the hostile and criminalelements of the FSLN, CDS and others live, with an effort for them to bearmed with clubs, iron rods, placards and if possible, small firearms,which they will carry hidden.If possible, professional criminals will be hired to carry outspecific selected “jobs.”Our agitators will visit the places where the unemployed meet, as wellas the unemployment offices, in order to hire them for unspecified “jobs.”The recruitment of these wage earners is necessary because a nucleus iscreated under absolute orders.The designated cadres will arrange ahead of time the transportation ofthe participants, in order to take them to meeting places in private orpublic vehicles, boats or any other type of transportation.Other cadres will be designated to design placards, flags and bannerswith different slogans or key words, whether they be partial, temporary orof the most radical type.Other cadres will be designated to prepare flyers, posters, signs andpamphlets to make the concentration more noticeable. This material willcontain instructions for the participants and will also serve against theregime.Specific tasks will be assigned to others, in order to create a”martyr” for the cause, taking the demonstrators to a confrontation withthe authorities, in order to bring about uprisings or shootings, which willcause the death of one or more persons, who would become the martyrs, asituation that should be made use of immediately against the regime, inorder to create greater conflicts.5. Ways to Lead an Uprising at Mass MeetingsIt can be carried out by means of a small group of guerrillasinfiltrated within the masses, who will have the mission of agitating,giving the impression that there are many of them and that they havepopular backing. Using the tactics of a force of 200-300 agitators, ademonstration can be created in which 10,00-20,00 persons take part.The agitation of the masses in a demonstration is carried out by meansof sociopolitical objectives. In this action one or several people of ourconvert movement should take part, highly trained as mass agitators,involving innocent persons, in order to bring about an apparent spontaneousprotest demonstration. They will lead all of the concentration to the endof it.Outside Commando. This element stays out of all activity, located sothat they can observe from where they are the development of the plannedevents. As a point of observation, they should look for the tower of achurch, a high building, a high tree, the highest level of the stadium oran auditorium, or any other high place.Inside Commando. This element will remain within the multitude. Greatimportance should be given to the protection of the leaders of theseelements. Some placards or large allusive signs should be used to designatethe Commando Posts and to provide signals to the subunits. This elementwill avoid placing itself in places where fights or incidents come aboutafter the beginning of the demonstration.These key agitators of ours will remain within the multitude. The oneresponsible for this mission will assign ahead of time the agitators toremain near the placard that he will indicate to them, in order to giveprotection to the placard from any contrary element. In that way thecommander will know where our agitators are, and will be able to sendorders to change passwords or slogans, or any other unforeseen thing, andeven eventually to incite violence if he desires it.At this stage, once the key cadres have been dispersed, they shouldplace themselves in visible places such as by signs, lampposts, and otherplaces which stand out.Our key agitators should avoid places of disturbances, once they havetaken care of the beginning of the same.Defense Posts. These elements will act as bodyguards in movement,forming a ring of protection for the chief, protecting him from the policeand the army, or helping him to escape if it should be necessary. Theyshould be highly disciplined and will react only upon a verbal order fromthe chief.In case the chief participates in a religious concentration, a funeralor any other type of activity in which they have to behave in an organizedfashion, the bodyguards will remain in the ranks very close to the chief orto the placard or banner carriers in order to give them full protection.The participants in this mission should be guerrilla combatants incivilian clothes, or hired recruits who are sympathizers in our struggleand who are against the oppressive regime.These members must have a high discipline and will use violence onlyon the verbal orders of the one in charge of them.Messengers. They should remain near the leaders, transmitting ordersbetween the inside and outside commandos. They will use communicationradios, telephones, bicycles, motorcycles, cars, or move on foot orhorseback, taking paths or trails to shorten distances. Adolescents (maleand female) are ideal for this mission.Shock Troops. These men should be equipped with weapons (Knives,razors, chains, clubs, bludgeons) and should march slightly behind theinnocent and gullible participants. They should carry their weapons hidden.They will enter into action only as “reinforcements” if the guerrillaagitators are attacked by the police. They will enter the scene quickly,violently and by surprise, in order to distract the authorities, in thisway making possible the withdrawal or rapid escape of the inside commando.Carriers of Banners and Placards. The banners and placards used indemonstrations or concentrations will express the protests of thepopulation, but when the concentration reaches its highest level ofeuphoria or popular discontent, our infiltrated persons will make use ofthe placards against the regime, which we manage to infiltrate in a hiddenfashion, an don them slogans or key words will be expressed to the benefitof our cause. The one responsible for this mission will assign theagitators ahead of time to keep near the placard of any contrary element.In that way, the comandante will know where the agitators are, and will beable to send orders to change slogans and eventually to incite violence ifhe wishes.Agitators of Rallying Cries and Applause. They will be trained withspecific instructions to use tried rallying cries. They will be able to usephrase such as “WE ARE HUNGRY, WE WAND BREAD,” and “WE DON’T WANTCOMMUNISM.” There work and their technique for agitating the masses isquite similar to those of the leaders of applause and slogans at the highschool football or baseball games. The objective is to become more adeptand not just to shout rallying cries.6. ConclusionsIn a revolutionary movement of guerrilla warfare, the massconcentrations and protest demonstrations are the principle essential forthe destruction of the enemy structures.MASSIVE IN-DEPTH SUPPORT THROUGH PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS1. GeneralitiesThe separate coverage in these sections could leave the student withsome doubts. Therefore, all sections are summarized here, in order to givea clearer picture of this book.2. Motivation as Combatant-PropagandistEvery member of the struggle should know that his political mission isas important as, if not more important than, his tactical mission.3. Armed PropagandaArmed propaganda in small towns, rural villages, and city residentialdistricts should give the impression that our weapons are not forexercising power over the people, but rather that the weapons are forprotecting the people; that they are the power of the people against theFSLN government of oppression.4. Armed Propaganda TeamsArmed Propaganda Teams will combine political awareness building andthe ability to conduct propaganda for ends of personal persuasion, whichwill be carried out within the population.5. Cover (”Facade”) OrganizationsThe fusion of several organizations and associations recognized by thegovernment, through internal subjective control, occurs in the final stagesof the operation, in close cooperation with mass meetings.6. Control of Mass DemonstrationsThe mixture of elements of the struggle with participants in thedemonstration will give the appearance of a spontaneous demonstration,lacking direction,which will be used by the agitators of the struggle tocontrol the behavior of the masses.7. ConclusionToo often we see guerrilla warfare only from the point of view ofcombat actions. This view is erroneous and extremely dangerous. Combatactions are not the key to victory in guerrilla warfare but rather formpart of one of the six basic efforts. There is no priority in any of theefforts, but rather they should progress in a parallel manner. The emphasisor exclusion of any of these efforts could bring about seriousdifficulties, and in the worst of cases, even failure. The history ofrevolutionary wars has shown this reality.APPENDIXThe purpose of this appendix is to complement the guidelines andrecommendations to the propagandist-guerrillas expressed under the topic of”Techniques of Persuasion in Talks and Speeches,” to improve the ability toorganize and express thoughts for those who wish to perfect theiroratorical abilities. After all, oratory is one of the most valuableresources for exercising leadership. Oratory can be used, then, as anextraordinary political tool.2. The AudienceOratory is simultaneous communication par excellence, i.e., the oratorand his audience share the same time and space. Therefore, every speechshould be a different experience at “that” moment or particular situationwhich the audience is experiencing and which influences them. So theaudience must be considered as “a state of mind.” Happiness, sadness,anger, fear, etc., are states of mind that we must consider to exist in ouraudience, and it is the atmosphere that affects the target public.The human being is made up of a mind and soul; he acts in accordancewith his thoughts and sentiments and responds to stimuli of ideas andemotions. In that way there exist only two possible focuses in any plan,including speeches: the concrete, based on rational appeals, i.e., tothinking; and the idealized, with emotional appeals, i.e., to sentiment.For his part the orator, although he must be sensitive to the existingmass sentiment, he must at the same time keep his cold judgment to be ableto lead and control effectively the feelings of an audience. When in theoratorical momentum the antithesis between heart and brain comes about,judgment should always prevail, characteristic of a leader.3. Political OratoryPolitical oratory is one of the various forms of oratory, and itusually fulfills one of three objectives: to instruct, persuade, or move;and its method is reduced to urging (asking), ordering, questioning andresponding.Oratory is a quality so tied to political leadership that it can besaid that the history of political orators is the political history ofhumanity, an affirmation upheld by names such as Cicero, Demosthenes,Danton, Mirabeau, Robespierre, Clemenceau, Lenin, Trotsky, Mussolini,Hitler, Roosevelt, etc.4. Qualities in a SpeechIn general terms, the most appreciated qualities of a speech, andspecifically a political speech in the context of the psychological actionof the armed struggle, are the following:þ Be brief and conciseA length of five minutes [line missing in Spanish text]…that ofthe orator who said: “If you want a two-hour speech, I’ll startright now; if you want a two-minute one, let me think awhile.”þ Centered on the themeThe speech should be structured by a set of organized ideas thatconverge on the theme. A good speech is expressed by concepts andnot only with words.þ LogicThe ideas presented should be logical and easily acceptable.never challenge logic in the mind of the audience, sinceimmediately the main thing is lost – credibility. As far aspossible, it is recommended that all speeches be based on asyllogism, which the orator should adjust in his exposition. Forexample: “Those governing get rich and are thieves; theSandinistas have enriched themselves governing; then, theSandinistats are thieves.” This could be the point of a speech onthe administrative corruption of the regime. When an idea or aset of guiding ideas do not exist in a speech, confusion anddispersion easily arise.5. Structure of a SpeechAbsolute improvisation does not exist in oratory. All orators have a”mental plan” that allows them to organize their ideas and conceptsrapidly; with practice it is possible to come to do this in a few seconds,almost simultaneously with the expression of the word.The elements that make up a speech are given below, in a structurethat we recommend always putting into practice, to those who wish to moreand more improve their oratorical abilities:þ Introduction or PreambleOne enters into contact with the public, a personal introductioncan be made or one of the movement to which we belong, the reasonfor our presence, etc. In these first seconds it is important tomake an impact, attracting attention and provoking interest amongthe audience. For that purpose, there are resources such asbeginning with a famous phrase or a previously prepared slogan,telling a dramatic or humorous story, etc.þ Purpose or EnunciationThe subject to be dealt with is defined, explained as a whole orby parts.þ Appraisal or ArgumentationArguments are presented, EXACTLY IN THIS ORDER: First, thenegative arguments, or against the thesis that is going to beupheld, and then the positive arguments, or favorable ones to ourthesis, immediately adding proof or facts that sustain sucharguments.þ Recapitulation or ConclusionA short summary is made and the conclusions of the speech arespelled out.þ ExhortationAction by the public is called for, i.e., they are asked in andalmost energetic manner to do or not to do something.6. Some Literary ResourcesAlthough there exist typically oratorical devices of diction, intruth, oratory has taken from other literary genres a large number ofdevices, several of which often, in an unconscious manner, we use in ourdaily expressions and even in our speeches.Below we enunciate many of their literary devices in frequent use inoratory, recommending to those interested moderate use of them, since anorator who over-uses the literary device loses authenticity and soundsuntrue.The devices that are used the most in oratory are those obtainedthrough the repetition of words in particular periods of the speech, suchas:Anaphora, or repetition of a word at the beginning of each sentence,e.g., “Freedom for the poor, freedom for the rich, freedom for all.” In thereiteration, repetition is of a complete sentence (slogan) insistentlythrough the speech, e.g., “With God and patriotism we will overcomeCommunism because…:Conversion is the repetition at the end of every phrase, e.g.:”Sandinismo tries to be about everyone, dominate everyone, commandeveryone, and as an absolute tyranny, do away with everyone.”In the emphasis, repetition is used at the beginning and at the end ofthe clause, e.g., “Who brought the Russian-Cuban intervention? TheSandinistas. And who is engaged in arms trafficking with the neighboringcountries? The Sandinistas. And who is proclaiming to be in favor ofnonintervention? The Sandinistas.”Reduplication, when the phrase begins with the same word that ends theprevious one. For example: “We struggle for democracy, democracy and socialjustice.” The concatenation is a chain made up of duplications. Forexample: “Communism transmits the deception of the child to the young man,of the young man to the adult, and of the adult to the old man.”In the antithesis or word play, the same words are used with adifferent meaning to give an ingenious effect: e.g., “The greatest wealthof every human being is his own freedom, because slaves will always be poorbut we poor can have the wealth of our freedom.”Similar cadences, through the use of verbs of the same tense andperson, or nouns of the same number and case. For example: “Those of us whoare struggling we will be marching because he who perseveres achieves, andhe who gives up remains.”Use of synonyms, repetition of words with a similar meaning. Forexample: “We demand a Nicaragua for all, without exceptions, withoutomissions.”Among the figures of speech most used in oratory are:Comparison or simile, which sets the relationship of similaritybetween two or more beings or things. For example: “Because we love Christ,we love his bishops and pastors,” and “Free as a bird.”Antithesis, or the counterposition of words, ideas, or phrases of anopposite meaning. For example: “They promised freedom and gave slavery;that they would distribute the wealth and they have distributed poverty;that they would bring peace, and they have brought about war.”Among the logic figures are the following:Concession, which is a skillful way to concede something to theadversary in order to better emphasize the inappropriate aspects, throughthe use of expressions such as: but, however, although, nevertheless, inspite of the fact that, etc. For example: “The mayor here has been honest,but he is not the one controlling all the money of the nation.” It is aneffective form of rebuttal when the opinion of the audience is not entirelyours.Permission, in which one apparently accedes to something, when inreality it is rejected. For example: “Do not protest, but sabotage them.”“Talk quietly, but tell it to everyone.”Prolepsis is an anticipated refutation. For example: “Some will thinkthat they are only promises; they will say, others said the same thing, butno. We are different, we are Christians, we consider God a witness to ourwords.”Preterition is an artifice, pretending discretion when something issaid with total clarity and indiscretion. For example: “If I were notobligated to keep military secrets, I would tell all of you of the largeamount of armaments that we have so that you would feel even moreconfidence that our victory is assured.”Communication is a way to ask and give the answer to the samequestion. For example: “If they show disrespect for the ministers of God,will they respect us, simple citizens? Never.”Rhetorical questions are a way in which one shows perplexity orinability to say something, only as an oratorical recourse. For example: “Iam only a peasant and can tell you little. I know little and I will not beable to explain to you the complicated things of politics. Therefore, Italk to you with my heart, with my simple peasant’s heart, as we all are.”Litotes is a form of meaning a lot by saying little. For example: “Thenine commanders have stolen little, just the whole country.”Irony consists of getting across exactly the opposite of what one issaying. For example: “The divine mobs that threaten and kill, they areindeed Christians.”Amplification is presenting an idea from several angles. For example:”Political votes are the power of the people in a democracy. And economicvotes are their power in the economy. Buying or not buying something, themajorities decide what should be produced. For something to be produced orto disappear. That is part of economic democracy.”The most usual plaintive figures of speech are:Deprecation or entreaty to obtain something. For example: “Lord, freeus from the yoke. Give us freedom.”Imprecation or threat, expressing a sentiment in view of the unjust orhopeless. For example: “Let there be a Homeland for all or let there be aHomeland for no one.”Conmination, similar to the previous one, presents a bad wish for therest. For example, “Let them drown in the abyss of their own corruption.”The apostrophe consists of addressing oneself towards somethingsupernatural or inanimate as if it were a living being. For example:”Mountains of Nicaragua, make the seed of freedom grow.”Interrogation consists of asking a question of oneself, to givegreater emphasis to what is expressed. It is different from communication,since it gives the answer and is of a logical and not a plaintive nature.For example: “If they have already injured the members of my family, myfriends, my peasant brothers, do I have any path other than brandishing aweapon?”Reticence consists of leaving a thought incomplete, intentionally, sothat mentally the audience completes it. For example, “They promisedpolitical pluralism and gave totalitarianism. They promised politicalpluralism and gave totalitarianism. They promised social justice, and theyhave increased poverty. They offered freedom of thought, and they havegiven censorship. Now, what they promise the world are free elections…”=================================This completes the text of the CIA’s manual and you are encouraged to upload other materials similar to this.